250,000 y.a. __AMH
, Anatomically Modern Humans begin to develop.
(y.a. = years ago, ice ages, warm ages)
195,000 y.a. __H. sapiens
fossils formed at the Omo
site in Ethiopia 
110,000 y.a. __The "Last Glacial Period" begins and lasts until about 10,000 y.a. with warmer interludes 
70,000 y.a. ___Mount Toba VEI 8 eruption nearly causes extinction of Homo Sapiens 
43,000 y.a. ___Homo sapiens occupied Kent's Cavern in Devonshire England
32,000 y.a. ___Weichsellian ice age ends, Dennecamp warm period begins.
Humans spread farther into the north and west.
30,000 y.a. ___M170 - Haplogroup I
founded southeast of the Black Sea [Map of Human expansion]
30,000 y.a. ___Gravettian culture (30,000 - 20,000 BC) spread from Ukraine to Spain by various subclades of Haplogroup I
28,000 y.a. ___M253 - Haplogroup I1
founded probably in the Ukraine Refugium
26,500 y.a. ___Oruanui VEI 8 eruption  The largest eruption since Mt. Toba caused the "Last glacial Maximum" - LGM?
26,000 y.a. ___Maximum ice coverage (LGM). Population living in refugia
25,000 y.a. ___ Neanderthals extinct 
21,000 y.a. ___M438 - Haplogroup I2 and L460 - Haplogroup I2a founded in the Ukraine Refugium
20,000 y.a. ___End of LGM
. Meiendorf warm period begins
, allowing populations to occupy parts of Europe
20,000 y.a. ___P37 - I2a1
founded in the Ukraine refugium spreading quickly up the Danube all the way to France.
19,000 y.a. ___Oldest Dryas ice age  begins, extreme cold, producing a treeless Europe similar to Arctic tundra
18,000 y.a. ___FTDNA suggests a major extinction (97%) period reducing entire haplogroup I population to just 8 haplotypes
18,000 y.a. ___Surviving populations retreat to the various refugia
15,800 y.a. ___M423 branched off P37 - east in the Ukraine Refugium
14,670 y.a. ___End of Oldest Dryas ice age
; the Bolling-Allerod interstadial
, a warm, moist period begins abruptly 
14,500 y.a. ___M26 - Sardinian branches off P37 - west in southern France
14,000 y.a. ___Post-glacial repopulation of Southern England begins
13,400 y.a. ___Y3104 branches off M423, somewhere northwest of the Black Sea
13,000 y.a. ___L621 - Dinaric branches off P37 - east, perhaps near the Danube delta
12,800 y,a, ___The "Younger Dryas" little ice age begins lasting 1,300 years
11,660 y.a. ___End of the "Younger Dryas"
11,660 y.a. ___ End of paleolithic and beginning of mesolithic.  Beginning of Preboreal warm period.
branches off Y3104 or from M423 somewhere in northern Europe 
, and moves into Doggerland
10,500 y.a. ___Post-glacial repopulation of Ireland begins in Cork. 
They were mostly I2a tribes from the Iberian Refugium.
____"8.2 kiloyear events", the Storegga tsunamis and Flooding of Doggerland 
8,200 y.a. ____Beginning of a 400 year long cold climate disruption
8,200 y.a. ____English Channel opened - L161 survivors driven south to the new shorelines in the Dogger Banks area
7,500 y.a. ____Atlantic climate period begins, warmer than the present.(7,500-5,000 y.a.)
7,000 y.a. ____Y13336 Alghaffar branches off L161 and migrates eastward
founded and soon split into Isles B
on the continent and Isles A
on Britain in East Anglia
6,500 y.a. ____Mesolithic / Neolithic transition
- The "secondary products revolution" 
6,000 y.a. ____Farming introduced into England
5,370 y.a. ____TMRCA of continental group of Isles B
5,000 y.a. ____End of Atlantic very warm climate period; beginning of the Subboreal normal climate period
5,000 y.a. ____Bell Beaker R1b
folk arrive in the Rhine river delta bringing copper technology and domesticated horses.
5,000 y.a. ____Windmill Hill culture-East Anglian tribe begin constructing Stonehenge 
4,800 y.a. ____Mt. Pleasant henge constructed in Dorset. 
4,740 y.a. ____TMRCA Isles B British group
4,700 y.a. ____The Bell Beaker invasion
of Britain occurs for over 300 years replacing 97% of the native Y dna groups
4,500 y.a. ____The Beaker folk begin the Bronze Age
in Britain 
, with copper mining in Cork 
and tin mining in Cornwall
4,300 y.a. ____Eruption of Hekla 4 Volcano
in Iceland. "Ireland was thirty years waste".
4,050 y.a. ____Seahenge constructed in Norfolk 
3,600 y.a. ____Construction ended at Stonehenge as a new culture becomes dominant
3,400 y.a. ____Isles C
- Y5450 founded in Dal Riata
and Isles D
- Y4660 founded near Roscommon, Ireland
3,000 y.a. ____Eruption of Hekla 3
in Iceland - 18 yr. temperature drop in the northern hemisphere, probable famines.
3,000 y.a. ____PF4135
founded in Cork Ireland
2,800 y.a. ____Iron Age begins in Britain
1,850 y.a. ____The great Antonine Plague 
, the Plagues of Cyprian and Aurelian - 120 years of plagues 
1,500 y.a. ____Anglo-Saxon invasion, slave trade flourishes 
1,500 y.a. ____Isles A
fragments into multiple SNP groups: A13664, A11374, Y11772, Y12075, A11115, A14359
1,480 y.a. ____Plague of Justinian 
1,480 y.a. ____TBJ 
erupts. "AD 536 Events" 
Two decades of famine killed millions world-wide.