artist: Giovanni Caselli

Haplogroup L-161

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The long history of DNA Haplogroup L-161, known as I2a1b2

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Tracing history from our pre-human ancestors down to the present time

A speculative extrapolation of the currently known facts

by J Danel

Oct 2016
(ver. 11)

Table of contents

  • Introduction
  • Geological Setting: Dinosaur extinction, Azolla event, planetary cooling, Proconsul, the apes
  • Pre-Humans and Archaic Humans: "Lucy", H. habilis, H. erectus, H. heidelburgensis, Neanderthals
  • Modern Humans: Perry, Omo, Idaltu, Ice Age, Mt. Toba, Out of Africa, Mesopotamia, Haplogroup F
  • Haplogroup I: Repopulate Europe, Cro-Magnons, Neanderthal absorbtion, Aurignacian, Gravettian
  • P37, M423, and Y3104: Oldest Dryas ice age, Ukraine refugium, warming, Younger Dryas
  • L161: Founding near Moldova, migration to Doggerland, "8.2 ky event", near extinction, on Britain
  • Branching of the subclades: Isles A, B, C, and D
  • The current situation
  • Haplogroup List
  • Climate and Volcanic Event List
  • Tools of the Cultures

  • >


    W hen someone gets back the results of a DNA test that shows L-161 as the haplogroup, one of the first questions is: what does it mean? One quickly discovers that it means he is in Haplogroup I, the main group defining Germans and Scandinavians. This is probably a surprise because the subject's male ancestors have probably been in Britain or Ireland as far back as is known.

    Well, Scandinavians in Britain, eh? That means Viking ancestry, doesn't it? Sorry to disappoint. While for some subgroups of Haplogroup I it may mean that, but in the specific case of L-161, probably not.

    Who were these people?

    This L-161 group is really quite small. It is less than 1% of the population in general, with pockets of higher concentrations. So how did a tiny group of Germanic ancestry get to be widely dispersed throughout Great Britain and Ireland? Wouldn't it take a long time? Yes, it did take a very long time and the source is an interesting deduction from the facts we have available now.

    They survived the Mt. Toba volcanic eruption

    The Mt. Toba eruption was the largest in the past 25 million years. It caused a millenium long "winter" and an enduring ice age that killed almost all the humans on earth. The survivors were a few Neanderthals in Europe and a few modern humans in Africa. Some in southern Asia held on for a while, but then later went extinct. The surviving haplogroups were A, BT, and CT

    They migrated Out of Africa to Europe and became the Cro-Magnons

    The ice age after Mt. Toba lowered sea levels enough to allow Haplogroup CT to lead a small migration Out of Africa. The track went across southern Arabia to the Ur-Shatt river delta in the Persian Gulf. There they found a warm, well-watered paradise. The population expanded and haplogroups continued to emerge:, CT led to CF which led to F which led to IJ and then to I. Haplogroup I migrated north and re-populated Europe. They came to be known as the Cro-Magnons. We are in Haplogroup I. We are descendants of the Cro-Magnons

    They survived the ice ages and migrated to Doggerland

    The Cro-Magnons flourished until driven out of northern Europe by the Late Glacial Maximum ice age. Some took refuge in Ukraine. When the ice retreated, they migrated north and west to the productive lakes and marshes in an area three times the size of Ireland called Doggerland. There they lived a comfortable mesolithic life. Sometime before or during this migration, the SNP called L-161 developed in one subgroup.

    Life in Doggerland came to a catastrophic end. The land was slowly being submerged by rising sea levels caused by the glaciers melting. Then, 8,200 years ago, there were nine disasterous events including three immense tsunamis that wiped out most of the population and left Doggerland completely submerged. The area is now known as the North Sea.

    They washed up on England and spread to Ireland and Scotland

    A few survivors of L-161 washed up on the shores of England. They have remained in the British Isles ever since, so they have come to be known as the Isles groups of L-161: A, B, C, and D. Their descendants have intermixed into the English and Irish and Scottish populations, but have never become a large percentage.

    That is the very brief and over-simplified history of L-161.

    For more detail, I will start farther back, with the Pre-Human ancestors and follow the developments and events from then.


    Timeline - significant events in the history of L-161

    (y.a. = years ago, ice ages, warm periods, Direct Ancestors of L161)


    Geological Setting

    65.5 million years ago - the age of dinosaurs was ended by an asteroid hitting earth at Chicxulub . 75% of all species became extinct. That cleared way for the start of the age of mammals.

    65.5 million years ago - The beginning of the Paleocene Period and the Cenozoic Era. The climate was about 12° C (20° F) warmer than the present with an atmospheric carbon dioxide content about 5 times what it is now. At the beginning of the Paleocene, most mammals were tiny and rodent-like. With time, mammals grew in size, number, and diversity.

    54 million years ago - The beginning of the tropically warm Eocene Period.

    49 million years ago - the 'Azolla event' caused the carbon dioxide level to drop from 3,500 to 650 ppm. The draw-down of carbon dioxide has been speculated to have helped transform the planet from a "greenhouse Earth" state, hot enough for turtles and palm trees to prosper at the poles, to the "icehouse Earth" it has been since.

    34 million years ago - The end of the very warm Eocene and start of the Oligocene is marked by a major extinction event: about 90% of the species that inhabited our planet at that time fell off the biodiversity map. (It might have been caused by a series of meteor impacts similar to the 23 observed when the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet broke up and collided with Jupiter. The four known major impacts were in Popigai Siberia, the Chesapeake Bay. Tom's Canyon New Jersey, and Mistastin Labrador. There may have been many more.). Earth's temperature abruptly dropped by about 6° C. The temperature stayed down for about 7 million years. The Oligocene climate change was a global increase in ice volume and a 55 m (181 feet) decrease in sea level. Temperate deciduous woodlands mostly replaced tropical and sub-tropical forests, while plains and deserts became more commonplace.

    25 million years ago - a small primate developed, founding the genus Proconsul.

    Proconsul was about the size of a 1 yr. old child

    Our oldest known ancestor

    25 million years ago, there was a small primate known as Proconsul. Agreement that Proconsul may be our oldest yet known ancestor is not unanimous, but if it was not Proconsul, it was a creature very much like it. Proconsul was very small - about 10 kg. or 22 lbs.

    23 million years ago, End of the Oligocene - start of the Miocene Epoch, which extends from about 23 to 5 million years ago. It is roughly coincident with the span from Proconsul to the Australopicithenes.

    Branching off of the apes.
    Proconsul survived and slowly evolved into larger primates. (see the speed of evolution in the box note below) Now and then a group would branch off and go on a separate evolutionary path of their own.

    • 16 million years ago - The Hylobates left, evolving into modern gibbons.
    • 14 million years ago - The Pongo group left, evolving into modern orangutans.
    • 12 million years ago - The gorillas separated.
    •  7 million years ago - The Pan group separated, evolving into chimpanzees and bonobos.

    The speed of evolution

    Lucy was about 1,300 mm tall or roughly four feet. Proconsul was about 300 mm tall. Evolution has very, very slowly increased the height of these creatures by about 1,000 mm over a span of 20,000,000 years. That is about 1 millimeter every twenty thousand years.

    5.3 million years ago - The Pliocene Epoch extends from 5.3 million to 2.6 million years before present. It is roughly coincident with the span from Lucy, the Australopithicene to Homo Habilis. It was a time of global cooling after the warmer Miocene. The cooling and drying of the global environment may have contributed to the enormous spread of grasslands and savannas during this time.


    Pre-Humans and Archaic Humans

    5 million years ago - The Founding of the Australopicithenes
    Australopithecus formed and quickly generated several branches. The A. robustus and A. boisei branches were dead ends, but left fossils that continue to fuel arguments among archaeologists, anthropologists, and paleontologists. Australopithecus anamensis does not seem to have been a dead end. It seems to have evolved into the A. afarensis that left us the famous fossil "Lucy".

    3.6 million years ago: "Lucy" the famous Australopithecus afarensis lived.

    It is thought the A. afarensis lived over a wide area in East Africa. Fossils and footprints have been found at Laetoli Tanzania, 45 km south of the famous site at Olduvai gorge, but the best fossils were found in the Afar Region of Ethiopia.
    There is debate as to whether A. afarensis is actually a different species from the preceeding A. anamensis. If they are the same, then the date is pushed back to about 5 million years.
    Variations on the family tree of Proconsul's descendants may be seen here.
    Family Tree
    These differ mostly as to whether Ergaster and Erectus are the same and which came first. There are others.

    2.8 million years ago: Homo habilis, an ancestor of Homo sapiens lived.
    Homo habilis developed the Oldowan technology for making stone tools.
    2.5 million years ago: Beginning of the Paleolithic and the Pleistocene Epoch.

    1.9 million years ago: Homo erectus (1.9–0.07 Ma) emerged in Africa and spread widely.
    He was an ancestor of
    Descendants of Homo erectus

    • H. ergaster (1.9–1.3 Ma),
    • H. rudolphensis (1.9 Ma),
    • H. gautengensis (1.9–0.6 Ma),
    • H. georgicus (1.8 Ma),
    • H. antecessor (1.2–0.8 Ma),
    • H. heidelburgensis (0.6–0.2 Ma),
    • proto-neanderthals (0.5 Ma),
    • H. rhodesiensis (0.4–0.12 Ma),
    • H. floresiensis (0.190–0.050 Ma),
    • Red Deer Cave people (0.015–0.011 Ma),
    Anatomically Modern Humans, (0.27 Ma).

    Undoubtedly there were many more.
    Homo Sapiens. This was a very successful creature surviving over a broad range in Asia (Java Man, Peking Man), Europe, and Africa for almost 2 million years until as recently as 70,000 years ago.
    That date suggests the Mt. Toba eruption may have had a significant role in the demise of the Erectus.
    Homo erectus

    They developed the ability to use fire and spoken language. Dark hairless skin, rich in melanin, and abundant sweat glands evolved about 1.2 million years ago to regulate body temperature. They developed and used the Acheulian stone tool technology for about 1.7 million years.
    1.5 million years ago: Descendants of H. erectus
    We know of six more advanced species generated by Erectus during his reign. These are H. antecessor, H. ergaster, H. heidelburgensis = H. rhodesiensis, proto-neanderthals, the Red Deer Cave people, and the Omo people. Undoubtedly there were many more that are unknown.
    1.5 million years ago: The Karymshina volcano in Russia erupted at a VEI 8 intensity.
    It was the fourth largest eruption in the last 2 million years. It undoubtedly has worldwide effects. The thinning of the numbers of H. erectus offshoots, e.g. H. georgicus, H. rudolphensis , etc. could have been caused by Karymshina.
    900,000 y.a. __The Zhamanshin impact in Russia.
    The largest impact in the last one million years is the 14-km Zhamanshin crater in Kazakhstan which has been described as being capable of producing a nuclear-like winter, but it was not sufficiently large to have caused a mass extinction.
    866,000 y.a. __Start of the Cromerian complex interglacial, a relatively warm period.
    The climate was generally warm, but the period is divided into three glacials and four interglacials, which are equivalent to Marine Isotope stages 13 to 21. Before this time it becomes very difficult to determine the dates of climate events with any accuracy.
    800,000 y.a. __Footprints left by H. antecessor
    Footprints left by a small group of people, including several children and one adult male, have been found at Happisburgh on the coast of Norfolk, England.
    700,000 y.a. __Homo heidelburgensis or Heidelburg Man, emerged in Europe.
    The ancestor of Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans, developed from Erectus in Europe and lived in a wide range across Europe from England to Asia. H. heidelbergensis could hunt herd animals that can run faster than a human, and this suggests that they had sophisticated hunting strategies, a complex social structure and developed forms of communication (language ability). H. heidelbergensis therefore already had intellectual and cognitive skills like anticipatory planning thinking and acting that so far have only been attributed to modern man. Some migrated into Africa where he later developed as H. rhodesiensis. (Modern science holds that H. heidelburgensis was geographically split into the European group and into the African group which is known as H. rhodesiensis. The two names are only geographical and do not refer to a different species.) It was the European branch that developed the Mousterian stone tool technology.
    600,000 y.a. __Clactonian stone tool technology developed.
    The European branch of Heidelburgensis improved on the Acheulean technology and developed the Clactonian technology that was later adopted by Neanderthals. Clactonian technology was used for over 300,000 years until it was replaced by the Mousterian technology developed by the Neanderthals about 160,000 years ago.
    500,000 y.a. __Proto-Neanderthals branched off from H. heidelburgensis.
    They colonized the middle east as well as Europe and part of Asia.
    488,000 y.a. __End of the Cromerian interglacial stage

    400,000 y.a. __Start of the Elster-Riss- Saale ice age glaciation (400 - 133 kya).
    The glacial coverage of Europe was even more extensive than during the later Weichsellian ice age. The areas where London and Amsterdam sit were under deep ice. The huge amounts of water tied up in glaciers dropped sea level and caused hyper-aridity in northern Africa. Migration into and out of Africa was blocked.
    400,000 y.a. __H. heidelburgensis in Africa differentiated into H. rhodesiensis.

    Later, modern man emerged in Africa, so the human ancestor was H. rhodesiensis

    400,000 y.a. __The Proto-Neanderthals split during the severe Saale ice age.
    One group became the Neanderthals who later shared Europe with, and learned the Mousterian stone tool technology from, Heidelburgensis. They colonized most of the colder parts of Europe that were not ice covered and parts of Asia. They survived until as recently as 25,000 years ago in southern Spain. Here is a listing and a map of the major sites.

    The other branch of proto-neanderthals developed into the Denisovans who went on to colonize Asia (and, later, inter-breed with humans).
    The timing of the division between Neanderthals and Denisovans and the extinction of the proto-neanderthals is very close to the start of the Elster-Saale glaciation. The ice may have pushed the populations south and split them, so founder effect caused the separate evolution.
    Intelligence of the Archaic humans

    Homo erectus is estimated to have had an IQ of between 50 and 60, based on brain size and on tool making abilities. Modern humans have an IQ around 100. Over the past 2,000,000 years, we have gained 40 points. That is about 1 point each 50,000 years. That means we are only 6 points smarter than the early Neanderthals, 4 points smarter than the Omo people - the first AMH - and less than one single point smarter than the Cro-Magnons.

    A difference that small is very hard to measure.
    280,000 y.a. __Haroharo Caldera of the Taupo volcanic zone erupts in a VEI 7 outburst, and then at 254,000 y.a. the VEI 8 of the Whakamaru eruption.

    Modern Humans

    270,000 y.a. __Perry's DNA suggests Anatomically Modern Humans, abbreviated AMH, were emerging 270,000 years ago
    This discovery has caused the geneticists to assign new names to the early haplogroups. Haplogroup A used to be the oldest, but now they have added A0 and A00. Haplogroup A00 probably developed from Rhodesiensis which is the same as Heidelburgensis.
    254,000 y.a. __Whakamaru Caldera of the Taupo volcanic zone erupts in a VEI 8, outburst.
    There were two enormous volcanic eruptions over a span that includes the AMH emergence. The eruptions were in the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand: 280,000 years ago Haroharo Caldera (VEI 7) and 254,000 years ago Whakamaru Caldera (VEI 8). Two such enormous eruptions had worldwide effects on the flora and fauna and on the evolution of humans. The volcanic "winter", lasting decades or even centuries would have pruned the family tree back to a few especially hardy and well-situated bands, so it seems very likely that 'founder effects', the driver of evolution, could have been a major factor in the emergence of the AMH.
    240,000 y.a. __Body Hair gene KRTHAP1 loss occurred 240,000 years ago

    220,000 y.a. __Puy de Sancy volcanic eruption in France
    This very large eruption had, no doubt, dire consequences on the Neanderhal populations in Europe. This ancient stratovolcano has become the highest mountain in the Massif Central.
    195,000 y.a. __The Omo people were living in Africa.
    Fossils 195,000 years old have been found at the Omo Kibish site in Ethiopia, the oldest AMH fossils found so far. Eventually it may be proven that these the founding Haplogroup A0 fossils. (Perhaps there should be a term Homo Omo for these people).
    160,000 y.a. __Homo sapiens idaltu, modern humans, developed.
    Homo Sapiens
    The fossilized remains of H. s. idaltu were discovered at Herto Bouri near the Middle Awash site of Ethiopia‘s Afar Triangle.
    These specimens are argued to represent the direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens sapiens. They were AMH - Anatomically Modern Humans. They were not the knuckle-dragging stereotypes of 'cavemen', but were esentially just like us. There were some differences in their bones, their skin was brown, blonds were very rare, and blue eyes did not exist.

    Founded as Haplogroup A, continuing diversification of the gene pool led them through the sequential development of Haplogroups A1 and A1b.

    160,000 y.a. __Neanderthals develop the Mousterian industry in Europe

    133,000 y.a. __End of the Saale ice age.
    Beginning of the Eemian Interglacial Warm Period.
    The climate was warmer than the current climate. Forests reached as far north as Cap Nord, Norway and Oulu, Finland. Sea level rose 20 to 30 feet higher than today.
    133,000 y.a. __Start of the Abbassia Pluvial wet period in the Sahara
    It was a wet period with increased monsoonal precipitation in the Sahara, which bloomed with lush vegetation fed by lakes, swamps, and river systems. This unblocked the route north out of Africa.
    130,000 y.a. __The first major migration of humans from Africa began via the northern route.
    The track was across the Sinai which was also benefitting from the Abbassia Pluvial wet period. These modern humans colonized much of Eurasia during the 30,000 year long wet period. Fossils have been found at the Qafzeh and Skhul sites dating to about 120 kya. They were probably Haplogroup A1 or A1b or even older haplotypes. The route stayed open for 30,000 years until the Weichselian ice age changed the global climate. Then the Sahara reverted to desert as a result of the retreat of the West African Monsoon southwards. The desert again blocked the northern route out of, and into, Africa.

    The first migration of modern humans from Africa was a complete failure.*

    The Weichselian ice age and the Mt. Toba eruption exterminated all the migrants. They left fossils and archaeological sites, but no descendants except a few hybrid Neanderthals.

    Here is how it occurred:

    About 130,000 years ago small groups of Idaltu type people - Haplogroups A, A1, and A1b - began to find a way "Out of Africa". They moved out on the northern route across the Sinai. The warm, moist conditions of the Abbassia climate period made that area much less formidible than it is today. It is not known whether the climate change triggered the movement or just made it possible. These small migrations continued intermittently for about 30,000 years. They spread to India and on to southeast Asia by 80,000 years ago.

    The competition and the struggle for survival may have been fierce and deadly. The space they were moving into was occupied by several varieties of genus Homo entrenched there, in some cases, for more than a million years. Homo Erectus still thrived, as did Heidelburgensis, Neanderthals, and Denisovans.

    Mega-fauna as food sources included: woolly mammoth, steppe mammoth, straight-tusked elephant, aurochs, steppe bison, Irish elk, equus, and Elasmotherium, but these are all large and dangerous to hunt with just primitive weapons such as spears and clubs.

    There were dangerous predators that hunted the migrants. These included: wolf, cave lion, cave bear, cave hyena, saber-toothed tigers, and giant polar bears among others. Other hazards would have included a new assortment of deadly germs, poisonous plants, insects, and snakes.

    Life for these pioneers would never have been very easy
    and then things got very much worse.
    115,000 y.a. __The " Last Glacial Period " began its advance.
    It is known in Europe as the Weichselian Ice Age. This long, severe ice age drove all of the human settlements of the "Out of Africa' migration to extinction.
    Meanwhile, back in Africa:
    As the 'abbassia pluvial' was phasing out and the ice age was phasing in, Africa experienced hyper-aridity because of the change in the monsoon flow and low sea levels because the water was tied up in glaciers.

    115,000 y.a. __Founder effects caused by the hostile climate may have resulted in Haplogroup BT emerging from A1b.

    100,000 y.a. __Haplogroup CT evolved from Haplogroup BT

    100,000 y.a. __Hyper-aridity enlarged the Sahara and blocked the northern route out of and into Africa.
    75,000 y.a. __The Mount Toba eruption
    It was the largest volcanic eruption of the last 25 million years.
    Mt. Toba
    VEI 8
    A vast amount of ash and noxious gases (six gigatons of sulfur dioxide and 3,000 cubic kilometers of rock) were emitted, causing extinctions of food sources and decades of famine. It was also a significant contributor to the thousand year long cold period that followed.
    The Mt. Toba eruption nearly caused extinction of Homo Sapiens. The number of humans was reduced to a very small population of between 1,000 and 10,000 breeding pairs, total, worldwide. Most of the few survivors were scattered from Ethiopia to southern Asia at an average population density less than one person per linear mile. The population reduction did not happen instantanouusly. Many surviving groups were well below the population threshhold necessary to survive in the ordinary course of events. Maintaining a tribal life and finding mates would have been very difficult, inbreeding would have been rife, so they slowly went extinct.

    The Mt. Toba catastrophe had major effects, not just in the near-extinction of the modern humans, but also on the populations of Homo Erectus. Homo Heidelburgensis, Neanderthals, Denisovans and other inhabitants of Asia and Europe. It may have been the final cause of the extinction of Homo Erectus and others of these groups.

    Furthermore, the populations of the large predators - saber-toothed cats, cave bears, etc. - were sharply reduced. Some went extinct. The smaller prey animals were also reduced, but in the new low-predator environment they rebounded quickly. Plants also quickly rebounded, taking advantage of the soil improvement by the volcanic ash. Food was abundant and the competition was low.

    The ironic effect was that predators and competitors were also very much reduced, allowing the migrants of the following "Out of Africa" movement to be resoundingly successful.

    70,000 y.a. __The main Out of Africa * migration went via the southern route.
    Now, Haplogroup CT, migrating from Africa, found itself to be the new 'Top Predator' in the new low-competition environment and was unchallenged in its new 'invasion' of southern Asia. Repopulation of Asia and Europe began with the descendants of Haplogroup CT.*
    The word 'invasion' drastically overstates the case.

    It was a small group or probably several small groups spread out over a considerable period of time. In an attempt to figure out how many individuals there might have been, the variation in mito-DNA was studied. The result suggests that there were only about 600 females who survived to be sucessful breeders, so the combined total size of the groups would be about 1500 - 600 men, 600 wives, and say 300 children.

    The much lower sea levels, as much as 200 feet lower, during this major ice age allowed the small group to cross the Bab al-Mandab Strait to Arabia (remember that rafts whad been used by Homo erectus a million years earlier). Then they followed the coastline eastward to the Persian Gulf and the Indus river. These modern humans colonized much of southern Asia.

    * The "Out of Africa" theory or "Recent African Origins" hypothesis.

    Repopulation of Asia and Europe began with the descendants of Haplogroup CT. This is the current consensus about the repopulation of Europe and Asia. There are many other hypotheses. One is that some groups in southeast Asia, upwind of Mt. Toba, survived and that from there a migration to the west resulted in the modern human population of Europe and Asia and of Haplogroup E in Africa This could be called the "Out of Indochina" model. Another is that survivors everywhere all simultaneously evolved into H. Sapiens. It is called the "Multiregional" model. There are other models. This is a subject of great and heated argument.

    Migration of CT and its subgroups
    The migrants were mainly Haplogroup CT, Several small groups that quickly diverged from CT became extremely successful in the bountiful enviroment. CT diverged into CF and DE. CF split into C and F. DE also split into D and E:
    • C - went east to southern India, Indo-china, Indonesia, and Australia.
    • D - went to southern China and on to Japan
    • E - returned to Africa
    • F - the ancestor of L-161, took up residence in the the Ur-Shatt river valley.

    65,900 y.a. __Haplogroup F, emerged from Haplogroup CF.
    Haplogroup F probably developed in the Tigris/Euphrates delta in the Persian Gulf or perhaps in the Indus River delta. In that part of the Weichselian ice age, the sea level was much lower, so the Persian Gulf was dry land to the south past the Strait of Hormuz.
    Migration to
    The Ur-Shatt
    The area is sometimes known as the Ur-Shatt, or old Shatt river valley. The area was a well watered plain surrounding fresh-water lakes. There were abundant resources to support hunter-gatherers.
    (SNP M89, defines Haplogroup F).


    Haplogroup F was very successful. Many small groups formed and migrated outward following the coast and the rivers. These groups evolved into 14 of the main haplogroups known today. Haplogroup F is ancestral to about 90% of non-African men worldwide.

    This "Grandfather's Path" graphic illustrates the route followed by the ancestors of L161 from the time Haplogroup F occupied the Persian Gulf about 65,000 years ago.

    55,000 y.a. __Haplogroup F, diverged through stages to Haplogroup IJ
    Haplogroup IJ was located somewhere in the northern end of the huge area occupied by Haplogroup F. Considering the dry climate, water resources would have been critical. They would have found good conditions in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates, now known as Baghdad. Groups G, H, and K branched off and are not ancestors of L-161.
    50,000 y.a. __The Glinde and Moershoofd Interstadial warm climate period begins.
    Including the following Hengelo and Denekamp warm periods, there was a span of about 20,000 years of mostly good weather. Haplogroup I made good use of the time to repopulate most of Europe.

    Haplogroup I

    50,000 y.a. __Haplogroups I and J split from IJ in Kurdestan.
    The group that would become Haplogroup I went north and split going around both sides of Lake Pontus, the Black Sea in a fresh water phase. From there they re-populated Europe during the 10,000 year long Glinde-Moershoofd warm period. The timing was from from 50,000 to 39,400 years ago. (J spread from Kurdestan mostly to the south and west, populating the entire eastern and southern Mediterranean region.) There are still significant populations of subgroups of I and J remaining in Kurdestan. Here is a link to a map of the modern distribution of Haplogroup I. Kurdestan is at the lower right. (SNP M170 defines this group and is the key marker for the expansion of Cro-Magnons in Europe.)
    45,000 y.a. __ Cro-Magnons, an early group of Haplogroup I, colonized Europe.
    The distribution maps suggest that Haplogroup I1 - M253 went to the east of the Black Sea to the far north and then were driven back south (up the Rhine, down the Danube) into the Balkan Refugium by the return of the ice about 28,000 years ago. L-161 ancestors, the Cro-Magnons of Haplogroup I2- M438, went west of the Black Sea and north to the area that is now Ukraine and Moldova. From there, they populated most of Europe. When the ice returned, they took refuge in all three main refugia, but our group seems to have survived in the Ukraine Refugium.


    Cro-Magnons were just like us
    except the genes for blond hair [11 kya],
    blue eyes [10 kya] and pale skin [18 kya]
    had not yet developed.

      The term Cro-Magnon does not have a real definition and has fallen out of favor. It is used generally to refer to Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) or Early European Modern Humans (EEMH) with the SNP M170 dna marker using the Mousterian or Aurignacian technology before the Gravettian technology was developed about 30,000 years ago. They were not the stereotypical knuckle-dragging cave men. Their brain capacity was about 1,600 cc (98 cu in), which is larger than the average for modern humans

    43,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons occupied Grotta del Cavallo in Liguria Italy.

    43,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons of Haplogroup I, occupied Kent's Cavern in England

    41,300 y.a. __The Hengelo Interstadial warm period began and lasted about 2,000 years.

    40,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons reached Mamontovaya Kurya in the Russian Arctic.

    39,400 y.a. __The Huneborg Stadial ice age or cold period began and lasted over 5,500 years.
    During the various ice ages, the conditions in northern Europe were too severe for primitive people to survive. They either died or were able to retreat to the south into areas of better climate.
    There were three such areas called "refugia": (1) the Ukraine refugium around the Black Sea, (2) the Balkan refugium along the Danube River and the Dalmatian coast, and (3) the Franco-Iberian refugium in Cantabria and the Aquitaine. Italy is blocked off by the Alps and so could not effectively function as a refuge. Further east was the Siberian refugium, but it is geographically reemoved trom our subject.
    39,000 y.a. __ Campi Flegrei caldera volcano near Naples Italy erupted as a VEI 7.
    A decade of extreme cold weather as a result of the dust cloud may have been significant in the extinction of the Neanderthals. It was the biggest volcanic eruption in Europe in the last 200,000 years. (The Mt. Toba, 75 kya, and Mt. Thera, 3.5 kya, eruptions were much larger but were outside Europe).
    38,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons developed the Aurignacian stone tool technology.
    Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons shared Europe for less than 20,000 years. The estimates of total Neanderthal population vary from as many as 70,000 to as few as 3,000.

    The Neanderthals had developed the Mousterian technology and, in western Europe, were improving on it: there were localities in France using the advanced Chatelperronian and, in Italy, Uluzzian methods. These advanced tool styles were far ahead of anything the Cro-Magnons had for the next 10,000 years until the development of the Aurignacian. These advanced styles did not spread significantly indicating isolation of the Neanderthal groups from each other.

    We moderns find it somewhat disconcerting to learn that when modern humans first encountered Neanderthals, it was the Neanderthals who had the advanced culture and the modern humans were the more primitive.

    The Cro-Magnons came to Europe using the very ancient Acheulean technology developed by Homo Erectus. The Cro-Magnons apparently learned the Mousterian from the Neanderthals and used it for several thousand years. Eventually the Cro-Magnons improved the Mousterian developing the Aurignacian technology from (very roughly) 38,000 to 29,000 years ago. The Cro-Magnons spread the Aurignacian all across Europe, including teaching it to the Neanderthals.
    38,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons inter-bred and probably inter-married with Neanderthals
      Besides cultural exchange, things were sometimes more personal. DNA shows there was significant inter-breeding with Neanderthals near the Caucasus and all across Europe about this time. The result is that present-day humans of European stock have 1-4% Neanderthal DNA.
      We seek to understand how these two activities - the teaching of technology and the DNA exchange - happened. A number of suggestions have been made - rape, kidnapping, etc., but none of these would provide enough DNA to get to 4%. One reasonable explanation is that they may have been a result of exogamous, patrilocal marriage practices generally used by hunter-gatherers, including (as shown by archaeology, DNA studies, and the strontium ratios in Cro-Magnon female bones) the Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals. In this situation, Neanderthal brides would marry Cro-Magnon men and bring their knowledge of the Mousterian with them to live with their husband's family and teach them the better methods, and then the reverse. This was how the Cro-Magnons first learned the Mousterian and also how the Neanderthals later learned the improved Aurignacian technology. This hypothesis provides a workable mechanism for the cultural and DNA exchanges to have taken place.

    Neanderthal family

    Neanderthal Marriages

    Consider this: 4% Neanderthal DNA means that 4 of 100 ancestors were Neanderthal. Those 100 ancestors would have made 50 marriages, with 4 of them having a Neanderthal partner. Fifty divided by four means one of every 12.5 marriages had a Neanderthal partner! (In the earlier phases of the repopulation of Europe, the ratio may have been even higher - as much as one in five. see below) If we accept Dunbar's number of about 50 for the normal size of a hunter-gatherer band, then two to five members of the band (all females, considering patrilocality) were Neanderthal. That is not rare at all, it is frequent or even commonplace. It was so commonplace that it raises a high probability that the reason the Neanderthals disappeared is that Cro-Magnons married all their women. The inescapable conclusion is:

    The Neanderthals did not go extinct; they were absorbed by the Cro-Magnons

    Neanderthal DNA

    It seems that the DNA percentage was much higher, perhaps around 10%, shortly after Cro-Magnons entered Europe. That would be equivalent to one marriage in five having a Neanderthal partner.
    The percentage has declined since then for at least two reasons. One is that continuing dilution from new migrants reduces the amount. Another is much more complicated. The DNA is eliminating itself. There may be several causes. The 'parts do not fit', so the DNA is selectively being eliminated. Or, there is evidence that there is some 'allergic reaction' that causes more spontaneous in-utero deaths. Or that the hybrids have low fertility. This is all under intense study and changes come almost weekly.
    A fictional, but probably realistic scenario is presented in Jean Auel's Earth's Children, an award-winning fiction series about a Cro-Magnon woman adopted into a Neanderthal tribe. An accompaniment to the Earth's Children books is Don's Maps a website by Don Hitchcock, an excellent and fascinating collestion of source and resource materials related to the archaeology of the time.

    37,800 y.a. __Cro-Magnons occupied Pestera cu Oase cave near the 'Iron Gates' on the Danube
    The cave is in Romania near the area of Lepenski Vir which is on the Serbian shore of the Danube. (The painting of Lepenski Vir at the top of the page is near the Iron Gates)
    33,000 y.a. __Cro-Magnons domesticated dogs in Russia at the Kostenki site.

    32,000 y.a. __Denekamp interstadial warm period began, lasting for about 4,000 years.

    32,000 y.a. __Cave paintings dating from the Aurignacian at Chauvet Cave in France.

    30,000 y.a. __EEMH or Early European Modern Humans developed the Gravettian culture and stone tool technology.
    (The term 'Cro-Magnon' is not used for people living after the Aurignacian.)

    The Gravettian was the culture developed from the Aurignacian.

    Venus Figurines

    People in the Gravettian period used nets to hunt small game and small pointed blades for big-game hunting (bison, horse, reindeer and mammoth). They are noted for their many carvings of 'Venus figurines'. The Gravettian was spread from Ukraine to Spain probably by Haplogroup I The area was so large that the culture developed a western version in France and an eastern version for Central Europe and Russia. In eastern Europe there is a long gap between the "end" of the Gravettian and the development of the Hamburg Culture. During that gap, the culture in use was the Epi-Gravettian.

    Northern Gravettian children

    28,000 y,a. ___End of the Denekamp warm period. The ice returned with a vengeance.

    27,500 y,a. ___ Haplogroup I2 - M438 developed in Anatolia or in the Ukraine refugium.

    26,500 y.a. __The Oranui (VEI 8) eruption of New Zealand's Taupo Volcano
    It was the world's largest known eruption in the past 70,000 years since Mt. Toba.(except perhaps Tierra Blanco Joven, about 500 A.D.). It may have been a significant contributing cause of the following Late Glacial Maximum (LGM).
    25,000 y.a. __Neanderthals became extinct.

    24,500 y.a. __Maximum ice coverage (LGM).
    All northern European populations were driven south where they survived living in "refugia". There were three main refuge areas: Ukraine, Balkan and Iberian. Mean Sea Levels are believed to be 110 to 120 meters (361 to 394 ft) lower than present.

    Life in the refugia

    Life in the refugia may have been difficult. All of the Rev. Malthus dire predictions may have prevailed in the over-populated areas that also had severe, but not lethal climates. One would expect disease, starvation, and war, resulting in what is called a Malthusian catastrophe. The catastrophe would return population to a lower, more "sustainable", level. The outcome would be Founder Effects, which we see in the diversification of haplogroups and in the spread of pale skin.
    21,700 y.a. __ M438 split into subgroups L596 and L460 surviving the Older Dryas in the refugium. L460 branched into P37 and M223.

    20,000 y.a. __End of the LGM.
    The very short Meiendorf Interstadial warm period began.
    The populations cooped up in the refugia broke out into open territory. Unfortunately, only a thousand years later - about forty generations - the ice returnd and the situation became very severe.

    P37, M423, and Y3104

    20,000 y.a. __Haplogroup I2a1, called 'P37', originated from L460 in or near Ukraine.
    P37 spread quickly westward up the Danube and north up the various Ukrainian rivers. The timing of the move north was unfortunate since the next climate change was a quick change to a very severe cold period - the Oldest Dryas - and they could not survive. Those who went up the Danube - P37-west - fared better because the Danube valley and the Dalmatian coast provided a refugium of sorts. Those who stayed in the Ukraine refuge - P37-east - dug in and held on. (SNP P37.2 or L68 defines this group)
    19,000 y.a. __Oldest Dryas ice age began producing a very severe cold climate
    A treeless "polar desert" developed across Europe. It was similar to Arctic tundra. The onset of the cold was severe enough and fast enough that most of the northern populations perished before they were able to migrate south to the refugia.
    18,300 y.a. __Vesuvius erupted at VEI 6 magnitude

    18,000 y.a. __The few survivors all retreat to the various refugia
    In the refugia, once again the Malthusian catastrophe played out..
    18,000 y.a. __FTDNA suggests the Oldest Dryas was a major extinction period.
    The Haplogroup I population was reduced to just eight haplotypes. This, of course, led to major 'founder effects' .
    18,000 y.a. __One of the founder effects was the development of the genes for pale skin
    It is the mutation of two genes - SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 - that leads to depigmentation. (These genes are different from the genes that cause Albinism: OCA1, OCA2, and OCA3). Pale skin originated in a subset of the population in the refuge. The small groups that went north out of the refuge at the end of the Oldest Dryas contained a large percentage of this pale skin subset. The trait spread slowly throughout the population.

    L460 subclades, the descendants of M438
    M438 and its several descendant subclades L460, P37, M223 and M423 survived the extreme climate of the Oldest Dryas in the Balkan refugium - protected valleys along the length of the Danube and in the Ukraine refugium.

    17,800 y.a. __'Alpine' branched off P37-west in the Danube basin. West Isles, and "France" were some of the other splinter branches.

    16,000 y.a. __Vesuvius erupted at VEI 5 magnitude

    15,800 y.a. __ Haplogroup I2a1b, also known as M-423, emerged in the Ukraine Refugium

    The founding was during the last millenium of the Oldest Dryas ice age, so it must have happened in a refugium. About 90% of modern Haplogroup M423 is in the Balkans. The other 10% is spread out over eastern Europe. These groups are shown as the lower left track and the upper right track in the diagram. There is some disagreement as to whether it was the Balkan refugium or the Ukraine refugium. It could have been either one, but the complexities of getting the P37 up the Danube to found M26 in western France and then get M423 back down the Danube to found the Dinaric and Y3104 is a very complicated scenario. The simple scenario is that P37 was spread out over both the upper Danube and the Ukraine refugium at the same time.

    Distribution of M423, Haplogroup I2a1b

    15,500 y.a. __'Western' emerged from P37-west in the upper end of the Rhine or Danube.

    14,670 y.a. __End of the Oldest Dryas ice age;
    the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, began.
    The warm, moist period, the Bølling-Allerød, only lasted 1,750 years. Of the two periods, Bølling and Allerød, the Bølling is the warmer and came on more suddenly. Although the duration was quite short, the impact was immense: sea level rose about 35 m (!) due to glacial melt and also to the drainage of Lake Bonneville. Ice uncovered large parts of north Europe and temperate forests covered Europe from 29 deg. to 41 deg. north latitude. During this time, late Pleistocene animals quickly spread northward from refugia: reindeer, horse, saiga, antelope, bison, woolly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, red deer, and smaller animals, such as fox, wolf, hare and squirrel. They were immediately followed by hunting groups that, over the next thousand years, developed the 'Hamburg' reindeer hunting culture. Today it is commonly accepted that the Hamburgian, featured by "Shouldered Point" lithics, is a techno-complex rooted in the Magdalenian. The Magdalenian was brought north by people migrating north from the Franco-Iberian refugium. The people migrating north from the Ukraine refugium were still using the Gravettian or Epi-gravettian culture. There was cultural intermixing involved in the development of the Hamburg culture, as would be expected.
    14,500 y.a. __M26-Sardinian branched off from P37-west in eastern France

    14,000 y.a. __Post-glacial re-population of Southern England began

    13,800 y.a. __Y3104 branched off from M423

    13,500 y.a. __Hamburg / Ahrensburg culture was established in the north German plains.
    The 'Hamburg (a nomadic reindeer hunting culture) evolved into the similar Ahrensburg culture and stone tool technology. The earliest archaeological find of bow and arrow artifacts is in the Ahrensburg. Ahrensburg culture is normally associated with the Younger Dryas glacialization and the Pre-boreal period.
    Donsmaps has an excellent writeup on these ice age hunters.
    13,350 y.a. __the relatively mild Older Dryas cold period lasted a brief time.
    Glacial Lake Candona drained to the North Atlantic. This surge of meltwater to the North Atlantic 13,350 years ago is believed to have triggered the reduction in thermohaline circulation and the short-lived Northern Hemisphere Intra-Allerød cold period, e.g. the Older Dryas.
    13,000 y.a. __L621-Dinaric branched off P37-east, perhaps near the Danube delta.

    12,900 y.a. ___The Younger Dryas little ice age began abruptly.
    There is evidence that it was perhaps caused by a collision with a comet, and compounded by one of the drainages of Lake Agassiz and by the eruption of the Campi Flegri supervolcano. The sharp cold lasted 1,300 years, but was not as severe as the Oldest Dryas. Some small groups were able to 'winter through' and survive in small villages as far north as Hamburg Germany. Most, though, were driven back into or near the refugia. I show Y3104 as being just north of the Ukraine refugium during the Younger Dryas after having been further north on the plains. England was depopulated during the Younger Dryas.
    12,000 y.a. __Campi Flegri erupted at VEI 6(?) magnitude

    11,660 y.a. __End of the Younger Dryas marks the
    11,660 y.a. __ End of the Pleistocene and the
    11,660 y.a. __ End of the Paleolithic.
    11,660 y.a. __ Roughly correlated with Bond Event 8

    11,660 y.a. __Beginning of the Mesolithic
    From the end of the Younger Dryas, the glaciers have been in retreat. It was the beginning of the Boreal climate period with a climate similar to today's. The difference between the paleolithic and the mesolithic is based on their technology and lifestyle. Paleolithic peoples used crude stone tools made by chipping and lived nomadically in crude shelters and caves. In the mesolithic, better stone tools were shaped and polished by grinding, pottery was coming into use, and some permanent housing structures were built.


    11,300 y.a. ___Haplogroup I2a1b2 now known as L-161 branched off from Y3104.
    The location was probably northwest of Lake Pontus (the Black Sea in a freshwater phase). There were five major river deltas in that area, so the environment for hunter-gatherers was ideal. The founding was in the Boreal nornal climate phase, so the geographic possibilities for the location are numerous. (SNP L-161 defines this group)
    11,300 y.a. __As glaciers retreated, L-161 migrated north from the Ukraine Refugium.
    The Don, the Dniester, the Dnieper, the Vistula, the Volga, and the Prut - all these rivers would lead northward allowing these migrants to reach the shores of a huge freshwater lake called Lake Ancylus (the Baltic Sea in a freshwater phase). L-161 moved westward along the shore and into Doggerland, a huge marshland three times the size of Ireland where the mesolithic lifestyle was relatively easy, adopting, developing and using the Maglemosian culture and stone tool technology.

    Doggerland, a mesolithic paradise

    11,000 y.a. __The Maglemosian culture was established around the shores of Lake Ancylus.
    and westward across Doggerland. The Maglemosian lasted 3,000 years until the catastrophic "8.2 kiloyear event".
    11,000 y.a. __Vesuvius erupted at VEI 4 magnitude

    11,000 y.a. __The hair color gene MC1R causing blond hair developed in northern Europe.
    There are several other gene variations that cause blond and other colors of hair that occur randomly across the entire world.
    10,000 y.a. __A genetic mutation caused blue eyes.
    This was a unique event affecting the OCA2 gene occured in one woman, resulting in blue eyes. This unique gene is transmitted mitochondrially. All blue-eyed people have this woman as an ancestor.
    9,000 y.a. __Post-glacial re-population of Ireland began in Cork across a landbridge
    Several subgroups of Haplogroup I would have been among the pioneers to cross the landbridge as the ice retreated.
      Reading the Irish legends about the arrival of various groups in Ireland, there were always people present before the immigrants arrived - similar to the 'discovery' of America when natives were already there. In Ireland those 'natives' would be the Fomorians of legend, and were probably partly subgroups of Haplogroup I.
    8,200 y.a. ___The 8.2 kiloyear event
    Haplogroup L161 was living an easy life in Doggerland, Resources were abundant and the mesolithic methods provided a good living. It was almost paradise. Then, with no warning at all, it was all gone and most of them were dead. The "8.2 kiloyear event" was not one event, but is better considered as nine separate disasters forming a 200 year long catastrophe.
    The dreadful sequence began with the drainage of Lake Agassiz which caused sea level to rise 2 to 4 meters (7 to 13 feet) over about thirty days.. The rising sea flowed back into Lake Ancylus, changing it from fresh water into the saline Littorina (Baltic) Sea. The climate abruptly turned cold and stayed cold for 400 years. The entire food chain collapsed.
    Similar events happened around the world. Lake Pontus was flooded to change it from a fresh water lake to the saline Black Sea. The Ur-Shatt valley was flooded with salt water to become the Persian Gulf. The freshwater food chain collapsed leading to famine among those shore dwellers that survived the flood. (Some suggest these events are the inspiration for Noah's flood stories worldwide).

    Disaster in Doggerland

    8,200 y.a. __Storegga landslide tsunamis and Flooding of Doggerland.
    There were three main tsunamis over a 200 year span. The shoreline waves were estimated to be as high as 32 meters. These were similar in scale, scope and fatalities to the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
    The Drowning
    Many northern Haplogroups show evidence of a major 'population bottleneck' event at just this time. Haplogroup L161 - S2639 shows evidence of a very severe 'population bottleneck' event at exactly this time - with a 98% extinction rate. The '8.2 ky events' are the 'Mt. Toba' of northern Europe, so it must be a major factor in the extinction.
    The simultaneous timing of the population bottleneck and the 8.2 kiloyear disasters is very strong evidence for concluding that L161 was in Doggerland - no other explanation is available as to why that extremely severe bottleneck happened exactly then. Without such an explanation, we can rule out the various other suggested migrations of L161 to Britain: with the Celts, the Anglo-Saxons, the Halstadt people, or with the Cord-ware people, etc. Furthermore, there are essentially no traces of L161 in the original locations of these other people - Celts, Saxons, etc. The idea of bringing 100% of the Isles AB-S2639 population along from these areas, leaving no traces behind, is very difficult to accept.)

    8,200 y.a. __The few survivors of L-161 were a subgroup now known as Isles AB - S2639.
    Isles AB washed up on the eastern shore of Britain,
    Isles AB
    washed up
    on England
    generally from "the wash" northwards into Scotland. A smaller group, that would develop into Isles A washed up on East Anglia. That "group" may have been as small as consisting of one individual man.

    Haplogroup L161 had been living an easy life in Doggerland until the "8.2 kiloyear event" almost exterminated them. The few survivors washed up on the eastern shore of Great Britain to recover. The recovery was helped by the arrival of the especially warm climate of the 'Atlantic' period. It was impeded by the cultural isolation caused by the open water barrier of the English Channel. Isles AB was on the west and a very few L-161, Y13331(?), were left behind along the route of migration and on the eastern shore of what are now the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    8,200 y.a. __Britain became isolated.
    The rising sea level and the Storegga Tsunamis changed the geography. The English Channel, previously not much more than a river, became a serious open water obstacle.
    8,000 y.a. __Vesuvius erupted at VEI 6 magnitude

    8,000 y.a. __ Kongemose culture had developed in Doggerland.
    The survivors of the 8.2 kiloyear event took that culture with them. With the shoreline resources devastated, they concentrated more on hunting red deer, roe deer and wild boar with stone axes and spears. The microlith tools that were made on the continent are very reminiscent of those made along the English shoreline - hypothetically - by the L-161 Isles AB survivors. English technology did not advance until the neolithic revolution about 6,500 y.a.
    7,500 y.a. __Pale skin became ubiquitous in northern Europe

    7,500 y.a. __The Atlantic climate period began, warmer than the present.(7,500-5,000 y.a.)

    Branching of the subclades

    fter the "8.2 kiloyear event", Isles AB (S2639) washed up on the eastern shore of Britain. We know very little about the activities of Isles AB (S2639) after that. We know that they survived and perhaps even prospered. After about 40 generations, subgroups formed. First Isles B emerged, then A. Later, Y3734 emerged from Isles B. From Y3734, Isles C and D emerged. Genetic calculations tell us when, but figuring out where takes a bit more.

    The split of Isles A from Isles AB about 7 kya

    Isles A may be the easiest to locate. There are virtually no Isles A outside the British Isles, therefore the branching of Isles A from S2639, about 5,200 years ago, occurred in Britain.

    Isles A was not lucky. They apparently never fluorished and never dispersed. They apparently remained a small group, tightly located, probably in East Anglia. Then starting 2,000 years ago, multiple catastrophies over a 500 year span resulted in an extreme bottleneck generating a TMRCA of only 950 years. Isles A, being located in East Anglia, would have been at the violent focus of the Anglo-Saxon invasions as well as by being closest to the Plague of Justinian, Antonine Plague, Britain's Great Plague , and other plagues as well as the "AD 536 Events", and the TBJ eruption that almost finished them off. By 600 AD, the total population of Isles A may have been in single digits, and perhaps as few as three families. One fled to the north, one to the area of Cork and Bantry Bay in Ireland, and one to southwest England. The first two have slowly multiplied. The one in Southwest England was eventually reduced to one single man. The family became extinct in England when he emmigrated to Virginia in 1635.

    The split of Isles B from Isles AB: 7.2 kya

    Branching of the subclades
    Other Isles AB, having newly adopted the new benefits of the Neolithic Transition, began migrating inland, where Isles B developed. Isles B was relatively successful early on (another indication of their use of neolithic methods) spreading throughout the British Isles. The TMRCA is about 5,370 years, which suggests a relatively tranquil existence.

    Isles B ➤ Y3734: 6.5 kya

    This was about the same time as the mesolithic-neolithic transition. Could it be that Y3734 carried the "secondary products revolution" into Ireland?

    Y3734 ➤ Isles C: 5 kya

    Isles C first branched off from Y3734 about 5,000 years ago. The distribution of Isles C in modern times seems split between Ireland and Great Britain with very few elsewhere, so it seems likely that Isles C emerged in the boundary area: Dal Riata.

    Y3734 ➤ Isles D: 4.3 kya

    Y3734 went into Ireland between 6,500 and 4,300 years ago when Isles D was founded. We conclude that the founding was there because the modern distribution of Isles D is heavily weighted to Ireland especially near Rathcroghan. Rathcroghan is a noted location for both Isles C and D, It was very successful and has extensive bronze age ruins, all of these during the same time period. This all seems more than just a coincidence.

    The branching of Isles D from Y3734 was nearly simultaneous with the beginning of the Bronze Age and with the domestication of the horse in Britain.

    Both Isles C and Isles D must have had some difficulties, not surprising among pioneers, with Isles C having a TMRCA of 2,730 years and D with a TMRCA of about 2,520 years. The eruption of Hekla 3 caused a bottleneck that might account for a significant portion of the shortening of the TMRCA.

    7,200 y.a. __Isles B emerged from Isles AB, S2639

    7,000 y.a. __Isles A emerged from Isles AB, S2639

    6,600 y.a. __TMRCA of Isles AB - S2639

    6,600 y.a. __TMRCA of Isles B - L1498
    6,500 y.a. __Isles B ➤ Y3734
    The arrival of Y3734 in Ireland coincides with the arrival of more cold-adapted seed stock for agriculture. Perhaps Y3734 carried the seeds with them.
    6,500 y.a. __Mesolithic / Neolithic transition
    In an astonishingly short period of about 200 years all the mesolithic groups adopted an entirely new way of life involving keeping domestic animals, cutting hay to feed the animals, ability to milk the animals, pottery to hold the milk, the ability to make cheese, and many other things known as the "secondary products revolution". By natural selection, Lactose tolerance begins to evolve among dairy herders. The whole cluster of advances is lumped together as the "neolithic revolution. The blazing fast speed of the transition was perhaps aided by exogamous patrilocal marriage practices in which the bride took her dowry of a calf and the knowledge of dairy practices and pottery making to her new husband's home.
    6,500 y.a. __Alghaffar branched off L-161-East, perhaps back in the Ukraine refugium

    6,500 y.a. __Isles C branched off from Y3734 in the England-Scotland-Ulster area.

    6,000 y.a. __Farming and stone circles introduced into England
    The stone circle construction seems to have started in northern England coastal areas. Isles B was living in Lancashire and Yorkshire, but the size of the tribe would not have been large enough to do the construction alone. Everybody was in on it.
    5,370 y.a. __TMRCA of continental group of Isles B derived from Bronze Age traders?
    TMRCA = Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor
    5,000 y.a. __End of Atlantic very warm climate period


    5,000 y.a. __Construction began at Stonehenge
    The Windmill Hill culture, perhaps an "East Anglian tribe" (could that be Isles B?), began construction of the immense Stonehenge complex and the other nearby sites: Woodhenge, Durrington Walls henge, and the connecting pathways, etc.
    4,800 y.a. __Mt. Pleasant henge was constructed in Dorset (by Isles B?)

    4,740 y.a. __TMRCA of the Isles B British group

    4,500 y.a. __Bronze Age began in Britain, copper mining in Cork and tin mining in Cornwall

    4,500 y.a. __Lactose tolerance dominant throughout Europe

    4,500 y.a. __The horse domesticated in Britain

    4,300 y.a. __Eruption of Hekla 4 Volcano (VEI 4) in Iceland. "Ireland was thirty years waste".

    4,200 y.a. __Bond Event 3, glaciers increase worldwide.

    4,200 y.a. __Isles D branched off from Y3734 in Ireland, perhaps near Rathcroghan

    4,050 y.a. __Seahenge constructed in Norfolk (Isles B? or Isles A?)

    3,800 y.a. __Vesuvius erupted at VEI 5 magnitude

    3,630 y.a. __Eruption of Mt. Thera (VEI 7) in Santorini Greece.
    Geologists think it may be the strongest explosion ever witnessed.
    The 'Avelino' VEI 6 eruption of Mt. Vesuvius occurred around the same time. Both caused catastrophic environmental problems known as the '1627 BC events'.
    3,400 y.a. __TMRCA of Isles CD - Y3734

    3,350 y.a. __King Tut ruled in Egypt

    3,000 y.a. __Eruption of Hekla 3 (VEI 5) in Iceland
    There was an 18 yr. temperature drop in the northern hemisphere.
    2,800 y.a. __The Iron Age began in Britain

    2,200 y.a. __ TMRCA of Isles C - Y5450

    2,000 y.a. __The beginning of a 500 year long series of catastrophies.
    All Europe suffered. The population dropped by 25% from 36 million in 200 AD to 27 million in 500 AD. It took another 500 years for the population to climb back to what it was in 200 AD. It seems clear that the subgroups of L161 were not spared. The TMRCA of Isles C and D indicate some fairly serious bottlenecking. Isles A was very close to extinction.
    2,000 y.a. __Small invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Danes began and continued for 500 years.

    1,973 y.a. __The Roman invasion and conquest (43 AD) under the Emperor Claudius began a 350 year long series of rebellions and guerilla warfare.

    1,937 y.a. __The VEI 5 eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (79 AD) caused crop failures as well as burying Pompeii.

    1,850 y.a. __The Antonine Plague and Britain's Great Plague devastated the eastern part of England where Isles A lived.

    1,750 y.a. __The Plagues of Cyprian and Aurellian wreaked havoc for 20 years.

    1,600 y.a. __The Roman withdrawal (410 AD) left a power vacuum that was soon filled by the invading Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Danes.

    1,500 y.a. __TMRCA of Isles D - Y4660

    1,500 y.a. __Main Anglo-Saxon invasion. - Cerdic the Saxon became King of Wessex
    The invasions were propeled by some frigid years of crop failure - a result perhaps of the TBJ volcanic eruption (next pagagraph). The slave trade flourished selling native Britons (including Isles B) to the European continent. This could account for most of those rare Isles B individuals found there. In 577 AD, Cerdic's great-grandson Ceawlin completed the Saxon conquest of England with his victory at the battle of Deorham (in the suburbs of Bristol). (If you are of British stock, Ceawlin is your approximately 40th great-grandfather.)
    1,500 y.a. __The enormous Tierra Blanco Joven - "TBJ" eruption
    The eruption of the Ilopango volcano in El Salvador had disasterous effects killing millions worldwide. New findings would make it the second-largest volcanic eruption in the last 260,000 years (After Mt. Toba, VEI 8 - 73 kya, and tied for second/third place with the Oranui eruption, VEI 8 - 26.5 kya, and the Whakamaru eruption, VEI 8 - 254 kya, of New Zealand's Taupo volcanic zone,.
    1,500 y.a. __Bond Event 1.

    1,500 y.a. __ AD 536 Events" caused two decades of famine.

    1,500 y.a. __The Plague of Justinian killed at least 25 million Europeans
    950 y.a. __TMRCA of Isles A - PF4135
    The 500 year long series of catastrophies from 2,000 to 1,500 years ago drove Isles A to the brink of extinction as is shown by the shockingly low TMRCA of 950 years. By 500 A.D. there may have been only three families of Isles A left alive, probably in East Anglia. From there they migrated seeking safer areas. Some settled in the north and across to Ulster. Others went to the area of Cork and Bantry Bay in southern Ireland. A third small group settled in Wiltshire, south of Bristol, England. The last survivor of this third group emigrated from Bristol to Virginia in 1635 so that group is now, so far as we have evidence, extinct in the British Isles.

    The current situation

    Isles A is found at very low percentages in England and in a concentration around Cork Ireland.
    Isles B is now found all across the British isles and to a very minor degree on the continent.
    Isles C is located mostly in the north of England, Scotland, Ulster and western Ireland.
    Isles D is relatively strong in the northern and western parts of Ireland.

    Haplogroup L-161 is a tiny group that comprises less than 1% of the European population, predominately - more than 95% - in the British Isles. That is not reflective of the I Group as a whole. Most of the rest are in Europe sandwiched between Haplogroup R1a on the east and R1b on the right. It is not at all clear how that came to be. There are many diverging opinions.

    The branches of Haplogroup I that have led to the modern L161 subclades are:

    —— M170—I
    ——— ⤷—➤ M438—I2
    ————— ⤷—➤ P37—I2a1
    ——————— ⤷—➤ M423—I2a1b
    —————————⤷—➤ Y3104—I2a1b2
    ———————————⤷—➤ L161—I2a1b2
    —————————————⤷—➤ S2639—I2a1b2—Isles AB
    —————————————————↓  ⤷—————➤PF4135 - Isles A
    ————————————————— ⤷———————-➤L1498 - Isles B
    ——————————————————— ⤷—➤ Y3734
    —————————————————————↓  ⤷—➤Y5450 - Isles C
    ————————————————————— ⤷———-➤  Y4665 - Isles D

    Predominant European Haplogroups

    Haplogroup List

    Ancestor Emerged Location, approximate Name
    Lucy 3.2 mya Afar, Ethiopia A. afarensis

    Archaic humans
    (ice ages, warm periods)
    Ancestor Emerged Location, approximate Name
    Handy man 2.5 Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania H. habilis
    Upright man 1.9 Java, Kenya, China, Hungary H. erectus
    Heidelburg man 700 kya Germany, Spain, England H. heidelburgensis
    Rhodesian man 600 kya Zambia, Ethiopia, Tanzania H. rhodesiensis =
    H. heidelburgensis

    Modern humans - AMH

    Haplogroup Emerged * Location, approximate SNP SNP Date
    Perry bef. 270 Western Cameroon H. sapiens, "Perry" .
    A0-T bef. 200 Omo Kibish, Ethiopia H. sapiens, "Omo" 235.9
    A1 170 Afar Ethiopia H. sapiens idaltu 161.3
    A1b 150 East Africa H. s. sapiens 133.4
    BT 140 Ethiopia M91 130.7
    CT 100 East Africa M168 88
    CF 80 Ur-Shatt P143 68.5
    F 70 Ur-Shatt M89 65.9
    GHIJK 65 Mesopotamia F1329 48.8
    HIJK 60 Mesopotamia F929 48.5
    IJK 55 Mesopotamia L15 48.5
    IJ 50 Baghdad M429 47.2
    I - Cro-Magnon 45 Kurdestan M170 42.9
    I1 40 Ukraine refugium M253 27.5
    I2 40 Anatolia M438 27.5
    I2a 30 Ukraine refugium L460 21.7
    I2a1 25 Ukraine refugium P37.2 21.4
    I2a1b 20 Ukraine refugium M423 18.5
    I2a1b 15.8 Ukraine refugium Y3104 (L161, L621) 13.8
    I2a1b2  (hg tree) 13.5 Moldova Y3104 ➤ L161.1 (S2639, Y13338/1) 11.3
    L161 Continentals 11 Poland L161.1 ➤ Y13338/1 ➤ Y13330 6.9
    Isles AB 10 Doggerland L161.1 ➤ S2639 6.9
    Isles A 7 East Anglia S2639 ➤ Y12072 ➤ PF4135 = Y11765 ➤ Y12075 ➤ Y12059(A2) ➤ Y19285 6.6
    Isles B 7.2 Yorkshire S2639 ➤ L1498 ➤ Y3749 ➤ Y3722 ➤ Y3734 6.6
    Y3734 7.2 Lancashire Y3734 6.6
    Isles C 6.5 Dal Riata Y3734 ➤ Y5450➤ Y18393(C1) & Y5451(C2) 3.4
    Isles D 4.2 Rathcroggan Ireland Y3734 ➤ Y4660(D) ➤ Y5280 3.4

    * The 'emerged' date in this table is my estimate of the date the "Dunbar group" began its journey to separation. It is the date of the 'spark' that started events moving forward. That date must be, by definition, before any archaeologically or genetically calculated dates. The SNP dates are from

    Climate and Volcanic Events

    ClimatefromtoNamekm3 ejecta
     cold 2.6 2.4  Pre-Tiglian complex.
     cold 1.8  1.6  Biber glaciation Eboronian .
        VEI 8 1.5 . Karymshina Russia VEI 8 eruption  1,000
     warm 1.4  1.1  Biber-Danube interglacial .
     cold  1.1  866  Danube glaciation
     warm  866  676  Danube-Gunz interglacial
     cold  676  621  Gunz glaciation
     warm  600  540  Gunz-Haslach interglacial
    ...  540  500  Haslach glaciation
     warm  500  478  Haslach-Mindel=Cromerian interglacial
     cold  478  424  Mindel Glaciation
     warm  424  347  Holstein=Mindel-Riss Warmzeit
     cold  347  230  Riss Saale
        VEI 7  280 ..  Haroharo Caldera .
        VEI 8  254 ..  Whakamaru Caldera  2,000
     cold  230  133  Saale = Riss.
        VEI ?  220 ..  Puy de Sancy volcano in France .
     warm  130  115  Eemian Interglacial .
     warm, wet  133  100  Abbassia Pluvial in the Sahara .
     cold  115  50  " Last Glacial Period " = Weichselian ice age .
        VEI 8  75 .. Mount Toba, largest eruption in 25 million years  2,800
     warm  50  41.3  Glinde and Moershoofd Interstadial .
     warm  41.3  39.4  Hengelo Interstadial .
     cold  39.4  34  Huneborg Stadial .
        VEI 7  39 ..  Campi Flegrei (1) caldera  200
     warm  32  26.5  Denekamp interstadial .
        VEI 8  26.5 ..  Oranui  1,170
     cold  26.5  20 LGM - Last Glacial Maximum .
     warm  20  19  Meiendorf Interstadial .
     cold  19  14.7 Oldest Dryas .
        VEI 6  18.3 ..  Vesuvius (1).
        VEI 5  16 ..  Vesuvius (2).
     warm  14.7  12.8  Bolling-Allerod interstadial .
     cool  13.7  13.5  Older Dryas .
     cold  12.8  11.7  Younger Dryas .
        VEI ?  12 ..  Campi Flegrei (2).
     normal  11.7  8.2  Boreal climate .
        VEI 4  11 ..  Vesuvius (3).
     cold  8.2  7.8  The 8.2 kiloyear event .
        VEI 6  8 ..  Vesuvius (4).
     warm  7.5  5  Atlantic climate .
     dry, warm  5  2.5  Subboreal climate .
        VEI 4  4.3 ..  Hekla 4 .
        VEI 5  3.8 ..  Vesuvius (5).
        VEI 7  3.63 ..  Mt. Thera .
        VEI 5  3 ..  Hekla 3 .
     normal  2.5  now  Subatlantic climate .
        VEI 5  1.9 .. Vesuvius (6) Pompeii 79 AD.
        VEI 7?  1.5 ..  Tierra Blanco Joven - "TBJ" .

    Tools of the cultures

    Oldowan tools

    (early paleolithic)

    used in Africa by

    Homo habilis

    and perhaps by


    2.6 - 1.7 ma

    Acheulian tools

    (early paleolithic)

    used in Asia, Europe, and Africa by

    Homo erectus and Cro-Magnons

    1.8 ma - 100 kya

    Mousterian tools

    (middle paleolithic)

    used in Europe and the Middle East by

    Homo heidelburgensis,

    Neanderthals, and


    600 - 40 kya

    Aurignacian tools

    (upper paleolithic)

    used in Europe by

    Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons

    38 - 29 kya

    Gravettian tools

    (upper paleolithic)

    used in Europe by the

    EEMH of Haplogroup I and its subclades

    Gravettian: 30 - 22 kya,
    Epigravettian: 22 - 14 kya

    Hamburg / Ahrensburg tools

    (upper paleolithic)

    used in northern Europe by

    Haplogroup L161

    14,000 - 11,000 ya

    Maglemosian tools


    used in Doggerland and northern Europe by

    L161 and Isles AB

    11,000 - 8,000 ya

    Kongemose tools


    used on North Sea shoreline by

    L161 and Isles AB

    8,000 - 7,200 y.a.

    Neolithic tools

    used in England by

    Isles AB, Isles A, and Isles B

    after 6,500 y.a.

    Bronze Age tools

    used in Britain and Ireland by

    Isles A, B, C, and D

    after 4,500 y.a.


  • "1,627 BC events"
  • 500 year catastrophe
  • "8,200 kilo-year event"
  • "AD 536 Events"
  • Abbassia Pluvial
  • Acheulian tools
  • Ahrensburg culture
  • Anglo-Saxon Invasion
  • Apes
  • Archaic humans
  • Atlantic Climate Period
  • Auel, Jean
  • Aurignacian culture
  • Australopithicene
  • Azolla event
  • Balkan Refugium
  • Black Sea
  • Blond hair
  • Blue eyes
  • Bølling-Allerød
  • Boreal Climate Period
  • Bottleneck
  • Branching of the Isles subclades
  • Bronze Age
  • Cave painting
  • Chicxulub
  • Clactonian tools
  • Climate and volcanics
  • Cro-Magnon
  • Cultures:
  • Dal Riata
  • Denisovan
  • Dinaric
  • Disles
  • Doggerland
  • East Anglia
  • Eemian warm period
  • English Channel
  • Eocene
  • Eocene extinction
  • Eruptions:
  • Farming reaches Britain
  • Fomorians
  • Franco-Iberian Refugium
  • Geological Setting
  • "Grandfathers Path"
  • Gravettian Culture
  • Hamburg culture
  • Haplogroup list
  • Haplogroup A00
  • Haplogroup CT
  • Haplogroup F
  • Homo habilis
  • Homo erectus
  • Homo erectus' descendants
  • Homo heidelburgensis
  • Homo neanderthalensis
  • Homo rhodesiensis
  • Homo sapiens idaltu
  • Homo sapiens Omo
  • Haplogroup I
  • I1
  • Haplogroup I2
  • Haplogroup I2a
  • I2a1
  • I2a1b
  • I2a1b2
  • I2a1b3
  • Ice Ages:
  • Idaltu
  • Intelligence of Archaic humans
  • Iron age
  • Isles AB
  • Isles A
  • Isles B
  • Isles C
  • Isles D
  • King Tut
  • Kongemose_culture
  • L161
  • L233
  • L460
  • L621
  • Lactose tolerance
  • Lake Agassiz
  • Lake Ancylus
  • Lake Pontus
  • LGM: Last Glacial Maximum
  • Lepenski Vir
  • Lucy
  • M26
  • M170
  • M423
  • M438
  • Maglemosian culture
  • Megaliths
  • Mesolithic
  • Mesolithic/neolithic transition
  • Mt. Toba
  • Mousterian culture
  • Neanderthals
  • Neanderthal inter-breeding
  • Neanderthal inter-marriage
  • Neolithic
  • Northern route out of Africa
  • Oldowan culture
  • Oldest Dryas ice age
  • Omo people
  • Out of Africa or RAO hypothesis
  • P37
  • Paleolithic/mesolithic transition
  • Pale skin
  • Plagues
  • Popigai impact series
  • Pre-humans
  • Proconsul
  • Proto-neanderthals
  • Perry's DNA
  • RAO - Recent African Origins
  • Rathcroghan
  • Repopulation of England
  • Repopulation of Ireland
  • Roman invasion
  • Sardinian
  • S2639
  • Saale ice age
  • "secondary products revolution"
  • slave trading
  • Speed of evolution
  • Stone Circles
  • Stonehenge
  • Storegga Tsunamis
  • TMRCA Isles AB, S2639 - 6,600
  • TMRCA Isles A, PF4135 - 950
  • TMRCA Isles B, L1498 - 6,600
  • TMRCA Isles CD, Y3734 - 3,400
  • TMRCA Isles C, Y5450 - 2,200
  • TMRCA Isles D, Y4660 - 1,500
  • Toba Catastrophe Theory
  • Tools of the cultures
  • Ukraine Refugium
  • Ur-Shatt
  • Viking
  • Volcanos: ,
  • Wash, the
  • Weichselian ice age
  • Y3104
  • Y3734
  • Younger Dryas
  • Zhamanshin impact
  • test words